Posted by : shahid Thursday, 3 November 2016



Eye cancer introduction cancer of the eye is uncommon it can affect the outer and inner parts of the eye the two most common types of eye cancer include intra ocular melanoma retinoblastoma these cancers affect the inside of the eyeball cancer that starts inside of the eyeball is called intraocular cancer cancer that starts in the cells of the retina is called retinoblastoma this program focuses on two types of eye cancer one is intraocular melanoma the other is retinoblastoma the program explains these two types of eye cancer as well as treatment options the eye it is important to recognize the parts of the I to help you better understand.
 Eye cancer this section reviews the anatomy of the eye the cornea is the transparent covering on the front of the eye it is part of the outer layer of the I light it's the cornea of the eye first the outer layer of the I also includes this Clara the sclera is the white of the eye the middle part of the I includes the iris ciliary body the iris is the colored part of the I it controls the amount of light that enters the eye in the center of the iris is an opening called the pupil light travels from the cornea to the back part of the eye through the pupil as light passes through the pupil it enters a clear lens that focuses the light onto the back of the eye the lens acts like the lens of a camera the ciliary body is a ring of tissue with muscle fibers that change the size of the pupil and shape of the lens it is behind the iris after passing through the lens focused light continues through a clear gel this gel is called vitreous the light moves to the back of the eye where the retina is located the retina changes light into electrical signals the signals are sent through the optic nerve to the brain the brain translates the signals into the images.
 we see the middle part of the retina is called the macula the macula allows us to see things clearly the rest of the retina is called the periphery it helps us see things on either side of us this type of vision is called peripheral vision or side vision the colloid is the layer of blood vessels that bring oxygen and nutrients to the eye it is located in the back of the eye by the retina can you point to the retina choose one or two correct the retina is the tissue in the back of the eye.
 it transforms light into electrical signals that are sent to the brain if the retina becomes damaged no signals are sent to the brain and the person becomes blind I cancer the body is made up of very small cells normal cells in the body grow and die in a controlled way sometimes cells keep dividing and growing abnormally the growth is called a tumor if the tumor does not invade nearby tissues and body parts it is a benign tumor it is also called a non cancerous growth benign tumors are usually not life-threatening if the tumor invades nearby tissues and body parts it is called cancer it is also called a malignant tumor cancer cells spread to different parts of the body through blood vessels and Limp channels lymph is a clear fluid produced by the body it drains waste from selves it travels through special vessels and being shaped structures called lymph nodes cancer that spreads from one organ to other body parts is known as metastatic cancer for example a cancerous tumor in the IMA grow it can spread to nearby tissues overtime cancers in the body are given names the name depends on where the cancer started cancer that begins in the i will always be called I cancer even if it is spread to other places in the body if the cancer starts inside the eyeball it is called intraocular cancer the most common type in adults is intraocular melanoma.
 it starts in the middle layer of the eye the most common I cancer in children is retinoblastoma it starts in the cells of the retina it rarely spreads from the item nearby tissues or other parts of the body all tumors are cancer select true or false correct only malignant tumors or cancer these tumors can invade other tissues and organs benign tumors are not cancer causes and risk factors it is usually impossible to specify the concept cancer in an individual but we do know what causes cancer in general health care providers no of factors that can increase the chances of getting cancer these are known as risk factors repeated exposure to natural or artificial sunlight is a risk factor for I cancer an example of artificial sunlight is light from a tanning bed another risk factor for I cancer is having a fair complexion this can mean having fair-skinned that freckles and burns easily does not ten or tens poorly blue or green or other light-colored eyes people who have white skin are at a higher risk so are people who are years of age or older retinoblastoma may be caused by a gene change passed from parent to child this is called hereditary retinoblastoma it usually happens at a younger age than other types of i can sir having hereditary retinoblastoma put the child at risk of having other types of cancer regular exams are important to check for these it is important to find the cancer early if it happens not everybody who has risk factors for I cancer gets it some people who have no risk factors for I cancer can still get the cancer it is always possible to determine the cause of cancer in an individual select true or false correct it is not possible to specify the cause of cancer in an individual having a risk factor for I cancer means you will get I cancer select true or false correct factor for cancer increases the chances of getting this cancer it does not mean the person will get the cancer most people who have known risk factors do not get Eye cancer symptoms symptoms of i can sir differ depending on where the cancer starts intraocular melanoma starts in the middle layer of the I retinoblastoma starts in the cells of the retina intra ocular melanoma may not cause any early symptoms sometimes it can be found during a regular eye exam common symptoms are a change in the shape of the pupil a change in vision a dark spot on the iris blurred vision the tumor may cause the retina to separate from the eye when melanoma affects the ciliary body glaucoma can develop glaucoma can damage the optic nerve this can lead to vision loss or blindness often glaucoma does not cause any symptoms if you have symptoms they may include blurred vision.
Eye pain I redness nausea retinoblastoma causes different symptoms including eyes that appear to be looking in different directions pain or redness in the eye the pupil of the eye appearing white instead of red when light shines into it this may be seen in flash photographs your symptoms may not be caused by cancer make sure to see a healthcare provider to find out what is causing your symptoms diagnosis if you have the symptoms of i can sir your healthcare provider will try to find out if I cancer is the cause there may be another cause your healthcare provider will ask about your family's medical history you will also be asked about your symptoms a physical exam will be done other tests may be done as well and I exam with a dilated or enlarged pupil can show the back of the eye a healthcare provider will dilate the pupils using Medicaid and I drops the inside of the eye is examined using a device that makes a narrow beam of light pictures.
 may be taken to record changes over time another test that may be done is an indirect ophthalmoscopy this exam looks at the back of the eye it uses a small magnifying lens and a light an ultrasound can also make a picture of the inside of the eye using high-energy sound waves first I drops are used to numb the I then a small probe that sends and receives sound waves is placed on the surface of the eye other imaging tests may also be done including a CT scan or MRI these tests can make more detailed pictures a fluorescein angiography can also diagnose I cancer it looks at blood vessels and the flow of blood in the I add I called fluorescein is injected into a blood vessel in the arm the dye travels through blood vessels in the eye a special camera looks for any blockages or leagues other tests may also be done to look at the iris or cornea the lens and ciliary body may also be examined often a biopsy is not needed to diagnose I cancer test cases the only sure way to diagnose I cancer is through a biopsy select true or false correct often a biopsy is not needed to diagnose I cancer staging if you have I cancer your healthcare provider will determine the stage staging is an attempt to find out how large the cancer is grown it also looks to see if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body the stages of i can sir are different for each type intraocular melanoma is staged by the size of the tumor the stages of intra ocular melanoma are small medium large diffuse the stages of retinoblastoma describe where the cancer is found in the body.
 the stages are intraocular retinoblastoma when cancer is only found in the eye extraocular retinoblastoma when cancer has spread beyond the I it may spread to tissues around the eye it may also spread to other parts of the body such as the brain or spinal cord it may also spread to the lymph nodes or bone marrow many of the same tests used to diagnose I cancer are used this stage it other tests may be done to determine the stage of the cancer I gone'a Skippy looks at the front part of the eye between the cornea and iris a special instrument is used it checks for blockages in the area where fluid drains out of the eye a special type of ultrasound can be used it is called an ultrasound biomicroscopy it finds and measures small tumors in the eye.
 blood tests may be done to check for certain substances that indicate disease in the body for example the blood can be tested to see how well the liver is working if the liver is not working well cancer may have spread to the liver a chest x-ray may also be used to stage I cancer it can show of cancer has spread to organs or structures in the chest a spinal tap can check for cancer cells in the fluid around the brain and spinal cord this fluid is called cerebrospinal fluid it is also called CSF a spinal tap is done by inserting a needle into the spinal column and removing a small amount of fluid to see if I cancer has spread to the bone marrow a bone-marrow aspiration and biopsy can be done for this test a hollow needle is inserted into a large bone often it is the hip a sample of bone marrow blood and a piece of bone are removed and tested the stages of intraocular melanoma are described by where the cancer is found in the body select true or false correct.
 the stages of intraocular melanoma are described by the size of the tumor the stages of retinoblastoma are described by where the cancer is found in the body treatment and supportive care the type of treatment used depends on many factors it depends on the health of the patient size and location of the tumor stage of the disease treatment for I cancer may include surgery radiation therapy chemotherapy photocoagulation cryotherapy thermotherapy often some combination of these treatments is used radiation therapy uses high-energy raised to kill cancer cells this stops them from growing and spreading the radiation that treats the cells comes from a machine the machine games the Rays at a specific area of the body radiation may also be given internally internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed and objects like needles wires or catheters these are then placed in or near the cancer there are also other types of radiation therapy that may be used to treat I cancer talk to your healthcare provider to learn more about these times chemotherapy is the use of drugs Stickle cancer cells chemotherapy is usually given in the bloodstream through an IV or it is taken by mouth the drugs may also be placed directly into the fluid in the spine photocoagulation uses laser light to destroy blood vessels that supply nutrients to the tumor this causes tumor cells to die it may be used to treat small tumors cryotherapy can also treat.
 I cancer it uses a special instrument to freeze and destroy cancer tissue it is sometimes called cryosurgery thermotherapy uses heat to destroy cancer cells a laser beam delivers the heat the beam may be aimed through a dilated pupil it can also be aimed at the outside of the eyeball surgery may be done to treat retinoblastoma the surgery removes the eye and part of the optic nerve this is done if the tumor is large the cancer is likely to spread to other parts of the body there is little or no chance that vision can be saved there may be clinical trials available for people with I cancer clinical trials test new medical approaches and treatments often only one type of treatment is used to treat I cancer select true or false correct multiple treatments are often used together to treat I cancer I cancer and its treatment can lead to other health problems it is important to have supportive care before during and after cancer treatment supportive care is treatment to control symptoms relieve the side effects of therapy help you cope with your emotions supportive care also deals with the pain associated with cancer and it's treatments your healthcare provider can suggest ways to reduce pain you may also be sent to a pain control specialist summary cancer of the eye is uncommon it can affect the outer part of the eye such as the eyelid it can also start inside the eyeball.
 this is called intraocular cancer the most common intraocular cancer and adults is melanoma the most common I cancer in children is retinoblastoma it starts in the cells of the retina treatment for I cancer may include surgery radiation therapy chemotherapy photocoagulation cryotherapy thermotherapy often some combination of these treatments is used I cancer is most treatable in its early stages research already has led to advances that have helped people live longer researchers continue to find better ways to care for people with I cancer

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